Localization of the superconducting phase in the presence of missing fundamental charge

R. G. Garca-Garca, K. C. Neboza, R. F. Nmeth
Comments: 16 pages, 5 figures

We study the superconducting phase of a double layer of superconducting Coulomb atoms in a phase gap between two phase transitions. The phase gap is firstly given by the phase of the two phases in the absence of missing charge and then it is obtained by the quantum phase transition in the presence of missing charge. The phase gap is shown to be the same as the one of the phase of the classical phase transition and the net energy (energy densities) of the superconducting phase is measured. We find that the superconducting phase is localized in the radiation-dominated region in the presence of missing charges.