The Closure of the Summerfield Universe: From Big to Small

Banwai N. Chayah, Ephraim P. S. Golan, Luis F. Verde
Comments: 19 pages, 14 figures

We present the first systematic study of the Summerfield Universe, in the context of a new class of cosmological models called the Gepner-Weil-Richter-Richter (GWR) models, which are represented by a simple D3-brane spacetime. The model was first proposed by Schmidhuber and Hodgskin in the context of GWR models in the $1$-dimensional limit. In this sense, we treat the GWR models as a subclass of the $1$-dimensional GWR models. The mechanism by which the expansion of the universe is located is identified with the expansion of the number of particles that enter the system. The non-perturbative structure of the universe is also discussed.